2. Ovarian Torsion
Ovarian torsion refers to twisting of the ovary. It represents a surgical emergency as it can lead to ovarian swelling, ischemia (inadequate blood supply), and necrosis (death of cells). Ovarian torsion may occur spontaneously or as the result of pregnancy or ovarian tumors. Symptoms may include right or left sided lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. The abdominal pain is most commonly right sided, which causes diagnostic confusion between it and appendicitis.
Treatment of ovarian torsion usually involves surgery via laparoscopy to untwist the affected ovary. Complications of ovarian torsion may include peritonitis, infertility, adhesions (an abnormal union of membranous surfaces in the body), sepsis (a bacterial blood infection), and chronic pelvic pain. With early diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis for ovarian torsion is excellent.