Previously referred to as Pick’s disease, frontotemporal dementia occurs due to “progressive damage to the frontal and/or temporal lobes of the brain,” says Alzheimer’s Australia.
Because the frontal lobes are involved in mood, social behavior, attention, judgement, planning and self-control, the source indicates that damage “can lead to reduced intellectual abilities and changes in personality, emotion and behaviour.” The temporal lobes, on the other hand, help us to process and understand what we see and hear; therefore, damage can lead to difficulties with recognition and communication.
One of the rarest forms of dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease occurs in only one in 1 million people each year. According to the Alzheimer’s Society, it is caused by “an abnormally shaped protein called a prion infecting the brain.”
The symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are similar to other types of dementia, including confusion, memory loss, agitation and depression, in addition to muscle stiffness and twitching. Because the disease progresses rapidly, death often occurs within one year of diagnosis.
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Another rare type of dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus is responsible for approximately 5-percent of dementia cases. It is caused by excess fluid build-up in the brain’s ventricles, which Healthline says can “cause damage that leads to dementia symptoms.”
Normal pressure hydrocephalus most commonly occurs in those over the age of 65, and symptoms typically include memory loss, forgetfulness, difficulties walking, and loss of bladder control.