Diabetes is a family of diseases marked by high levels of glucose in the blood, or hyperglycemia. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates a total of 29.1-million individuals or 9.3-percent of the population have been diagnosed with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the absence of insulin, a hormone, secretion from the pancreas, an endocrine organ, while type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and is closely associated with being overweight or obese. Both types of diabetes may have multiple complications. Ten recommendations for diabetes health maintenance are…
1. Hemoglobin A1C
Hemoglobin A1C is a lab test that can be used to diagnose or assess the treatment of diabetes. The test represents the average blood glucose level over the previous three months. It can reveal how well an individual has been controlling their diabetes. The test is usually performed at a laboratory, but some medical offices perform them in house. No special preparation is needed for the hemoglobin A1C test.
When used to diagnose diabetes, the following results indicate less than 5.7-percent: Normal (no diabetes), 5.7-percent to 6.4 percent: Pre-diabetes, and 6.5-percent or higher: Diabetes. When assessing control of diabetes, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends a goal hemoglobin A1C below 7-percent. If an individual’s hemoglobin A1C is above 7-percent, it means their blood glucose is not very well controlled. The hemoglobin A1C test should be performed every 6-months if diabetes is controlled or every 3-months if diabetes is not controlled.